Basically, you can do almost anything in Twine that you could in a web page you’d see anywhere else on the Internet (the main exception being things which require separate server-side code, in which case that would require Twine plus some other server-side tool). So, if you’ve seen a web page where they could do what you describe, then you can be pretty sure that you can do that in Twine too.
Since you’re new, I’d recommend that, instead of using the default story format, Harlowe, learning the SugarCube story format would work better since it’s more flexible and has more built-in tools. (You can set your preferred story format in the main Twine window by clicking the “Formats” button, or you can set the story format for an individual story by selecting “Change Story Format” from that story’s bottom menu.)
Here’s the link to the main SugarCube 2 page, which itself links to the SugarCube 2 documentation and the download for the latest version of SugarCube 2 (this is often slightly newer than the version included with Twine).
Assuming you decide to use SugarCube, then for inputting text answers (including “fill in the blanks”) you could use the
<<textarea>> macros, which allow you to enter either a single line or multiple lines of text, respectively.
For multiple choice you could use the
<<checkbox>> macros, which allow you to select either a single answer among those choices or multiple answers, respectively.
Also, since published Twine games are just HTML files, they’ll play in any browser, so there’s no need to “port” anything. You can either put the HTML file online and have them play it there or you can have them download the HTML file (and any other necessary media files that it uses) and then they can play it offline.
You might also want to check out the “Information” part of the sidebar at the r/twinegames subreddit, since there’s a bunch of links to good information there.