Yes, the letter casing of letters within a String value matter when you are comparing one such value with another. eg. “J” is not equal to “j”, thus “Jane” is not equal to “jane”.
In situations where you want to compare two Sting values, in a way that ignores the casing of the letter(s) contained within the two values (like comparing a entered password), one common technique used is to temporary convert both string values into the same letter casing.
(set: $string1 to "A")
(set: $string2 to "a")
(if: (lowercase: $string1) is (lowercase: $string2))[The two strings contain the same letter.]
(else:)[The two strings don't contain the same letter.]
note: In situations when you know the letter case of one of the values then you only need to convert the casing of the other.